Section “A” 50 Marks 1. Briefly describe the history of civil aviation in Nepal. List out international airports constructed and […]
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Excerpt 1: Importance of Cross-Drainage Works
Cross-drainage works play a vital role in irrigation projects by ensuring the uninterrupted flow of water. These structures are necessary to handle natural drainages such as rivers and streams that intersect with the canal network. By constructing suitable cross-drainage works, we can facilitate the smooth movement of water in both the canal and the drainage, preventing any disruptions to the irrigation system.
Excerpt 2: Types of Cross-Drainage Works
There are various types of cross-drainage works depending on the relative positions of the canal and the drainage. One common type is the aqueduct, where the canal is elevated over the drainage, allowing the water to flow freely below. Another option is the superpassage, which involves taking the canal below the drainage, allowing gravity-driven flow. Additionally, there are level crossings where the canal and drainage are at the same level, enabling controlled passage of water between the two.
Excerpt 3: Considerations and Challenges
While cross-drainage works are necessary, they can be costly and should be minimized whenever possible. By careful alignment planning, it may be feasible to reduce the number of crossings or divert smaller drainages into larger ones, thereby reducing the need for additional structures. However, the suitability of the site must be considered, taking into account factors such as construction feasibility and maintenance requirements. It is essential to strike a balance between cost-effectiveness and ensuring the efficient functioning of the irrigation system.
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